Learning by Watching: Social Cognitive Theory and Vicarious Learning
JANUARY 7, 2015
Rather, we have stated this example to prove a point: that observation is an intrinsic human technique to learn unfamiliar tasks or behaviors – something that has been theorized by the psychologist Albert Bandura as what he called the ‘Social Cognitive Theory’. What is Social Cognitive Theory? Try and peep in, don’t you? This isn’t to embarrass you. Image Credit – [link].
Cognitive Load Theory: The Key to Smarter Instructional Design
OCTOBER 15, 2014
What is cognitive load theory (CLT)? ‘Cognitive’ means mental and ‘load’ means burden, so this theory basically studies the mental load that the human brain faces when learning happens. For example, suppose we tell you five words- complexity, television, snow, equation and circumstances. Cognitive load is of three types: Intrinsic. Extraneous.
Situated Cognition In eLearning: What eLearning Professionals Should Know
DECEMBER 7, 2015
In this article, I’ll shed light on the situated cognition theory, from its core principles to tips that will help you use it in your next eLearning course. Situated cognition is based on the idea that learning is most effective when it is in context. Cognitive Apprenticeships and communities of practice also go hand-in-hand with situated cognition. According to J.
Cognitive Load Theory: What You Need to Know to Develop Instructional Tools that Work
Voice of Clarity
MARCH 19, 2015
What you need to consider is cognitive load—in other words, how much effort your learners need to spend to really absorb your content. In the 1980s, psychologist John Sweller came up with a framework for cognitive load. Let’s see how Sweller’s cognitive load types can help you design a more effective learning environment. Intrinsic load. Extraneous load. Germane load.
Microlearning Whitepaper: Small Bites, Big Impact
Single-event training is highly susceptible to the “forgetting curve3,” a proven cognitive. This also has the benefit of enhancing the value of in-class or eLearning sessions by ensuring employees don’t forget what they learn. • It helps reduce cognitive overload by delivering information in short, easy-to-understand chunks. For example: • Bloomindale’s attributed a 22.9%
What is a Cognitive Apprenticeship?
NOVEMBER 7, 2011
The concept of cognitive apprenticeship is grounded in the theory of Situated Cognition. Situated cognition is a theory of instruction that suggests learning is naturally tied to authentic activity, context, and culture. To grasp subjects, learners need much more than abstract concepts and self-contained examples, they need to be exposed to the use of the information and cognitive tools in an authentic activity. Authentic activities provide learning opportunities in a way that textbook examples and declarative explanations cannot.
Designing eLearning for Cognitive Ease
DECEMBER 12, 2012
recently started reading Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman, and the chapter on cognitive ease offered all sorts of implications for eLearning design. This, combined with additional discussion in the book, suggests that a bad mood creates cognitive strain, and a good mood promotes cognitive ease. Instead of conducting four hours of training within a single day, consider dividing it into one-hour sessions over four weeks, for example. By Shelley A. Gable. Promote a good mood. that create a warm, positive tone. Ensure repeated exposure to critical content.
How to Combat Cognitive Overload with Connie Malamed #ASTDTK12
JANUARY 25, 2012
high cognitive load (which leads to poor comprehension and obstructs learning) Cognitive load affected by # of interacting elements. Ways to combat cognitive overload: Make the learning meaningful – so they can understand it, make it relevant to what you’re doing in the workplace, connected to the network of schemas) Help create schemas – refer to previous knowledge because it’s like giving them free schemas – so they can build on something they already know – always remind learners of what they already know. My live notes from session at ASTDTK12 with @elearningcoach.
How colors can enhance memory performance?
JANUARY 12, 2014
In previous post How does memory work ?, we saw that memory in its core is a cognitive process. Cognitive psychologists discovered different design principles to enhance memory performance and in that way remembering the information. See the example below: Picture 2: An example of using monochromatic color scheme for each group of nodes. References: Chapman, C. 1976).
Three Cognitive Benefits of Games
AUGUST 30, 2011
For example: In the 1970′s BP created a board game in which one of the scenarios was a catastrophic oil spill. One: Challenge and Consolidation – Good games offer players a set of challenging problems and then let them solve these problems until they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions. Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiring them to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learn something new, and integrate this new learning into their old mastery. James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Games
Adults should think more like babies, as a babies brain is the most powerful #learning computer with amazing #cognitive skills
OCTOBER 13, 2011
Always there, almost always patient and with a remarkable – truly remarkable– sense for stimulating the cognitive brain of our preciously young baby (she’sa teacher at heart). Learning him to grab, crawl, speak on the basis of a neverrelentless stream of examples and motivational acknowledgment when our sontakes action. Informallearning is one of the key topics in this knowledge era.
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy: Cognitive processes and levels of knowledge matrix
Big Dog, Little Dog
JUNE 25, 2014
While Bloom''s original cognitive taxonomy did mention three levels of knowledge or products that could be processed (shown below), they were not discussed very much and remained one-dimensional. In Krathwohl and Anderson''s revised version, the authors combine the cognitive processes with the above three levels of knowledge to form a matrix. In addition they added another level of knowledge - metacognition: Metacognitive – Knowledge of cognition in general, as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition. . give an example. Cognitive Domain.
5 Reasons to Use Gamification in E-Learning
DECEMBER 29, 2014
Games help in development of cognitive ability. For example, a simulated game that has engineer trainees repairing different machineries that get more complex as they complete each level, will ultimately develop their cognitive ability in that area. Our mind inputs far more concentration and participation in a game rather than something we are otherwise taught. Like our post ?
How To Be Effective At Persuasion For Learning
The eLearning Coach
JUNE 30, 2015
For example, when you need […] Post from: The eLearning Coach How To Be Effective At Persuasion For Learning. CognitionDo you ever need to persuade an audience during a learning experience? Although the persuasion may be subtle, I’m guessing the answer is yes.
How to Integrate Social Learning in the Workplace
APRIL 24, 2015
For example, Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory stresses the importance of observational learning, imitation and modeling to learn certain behaviors. Any change must come from the top and key executives must lead by example to demonstrate the importance of a shared learning culture. Social learning is not a new concept. Social learning , thus waned away. Like our post ?
Learning with e's
JANUARY 27, 2014
The work of John Sweller and Nillie Lavie on Cognitive Load Theory and Capacity Theory (based on studies by Shalom Fisch ) is useful to help us understand how to optimise digital design environments such as the layout of virtual learning environments or online discussion groups. What exactly can Cognitive Load Theory do to help us to optimise students'' memories? Unported License.
Is your Learning map student friendly? – CHECKLIST
OCTOBER 27, 2014
If you are explaining visuals do it with audio or text – not both at the same time ( Designing according to cognitive theory ). 8 Use video Students like interesting videos. See an example of a Learning map which follows the gudelines from above: About Edynco bite-sized chunking information cognitive theory instructional design learning map Every beginning is difficult. So I gathered 13 guidelines on how to create student friendly Learning map in Edynco and put it in a checklist form. GUIDELINE EXPLANATION Yes, I did it! See Working memory capacity ). Draw max. minutes).
Situated Learning: Essential for a Learning Culture
The Peformance Improvement
AUGUST 3, 2015
John Seely Brown , Allan Collins, and Paul Duguid labeled this kind of learning: “ situated cognition ”. One example of this technology is KnowledgeStar TM. Learning Culture Organization Culture Organizational Learning Training John Seely Brown situated cognitionThe next day I had no hot water. The electric pilot light on the water heater was not coming on.
Taxonomy of Learning Theories
JANUARY 12, 2010
For example, classical conditioning maintains that a neutral stimulus can be associated with another stimulus that elicits a particular response. It’s important to note that Social Learning Theory now extends beyond the behaviourist domain to encompass cognition, particularly through the work of Julian Rotter and Albert Bandura. . Cognitive load . Where do you start?
Learning with e's
JUNE 1, 2014
In this post, we continue to explore Festinger''s work, this time focusing on his theory of cognitive dissonance. Festinger called this phenomenon cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is essentially a theory of motivation through conflict resolution. As Kendra Cherry argues: "Cognitive dissonance plays a role in many value judgements, decisions and evaluations.
More on Questions - the Edge and Your Cognitive Toolkit
JANUARY 20, 2011
The 2011 Questions is now out and its a good one: " WHAT SCIENTIFIC CONCEPT WOULD IMPROVE EVERYBODY'S COGNITIVE TOOLKIT? His idea is that the abstraction is available as a single cognitive chunk which can be used as an element in thinking and debate.". No, not the U2's Edge. The occasion for all this is t he annual Question that the Edge asks its members to answer. Nice one right?
Learning with e's
MAY 24, 2014
Craik and Lockhart claimed that the deeper the processing, the stronger will be the trace of that memory, and thus recall will take less cognitive effort. This framework for human memory research is considered by many cognitive psychologists to be a stronger explanation than those of the multi-store memory models. This is number 5 in my blog series on major learning theories.
Deeper eLearning Design: Part 4 – Examples
AUGUST 10, 2015
Here we’re talking about the role of examples in learning, and we’ll continue on through emotional elements, and finally putting it all together. Examples are a part of learning, as we know, and learning design is, or should be considered complex. So too with examples, we tend to treat them as easy to write. However, an example that is missing the nuances, the details that make them work, can be as useless as nothing at all. To do examples right, you need to understand what their role is in the learning process, and ensure that you are addressing the subtleties.
7 Challenges to Social Learning
OCTOBER 28, 2014
For example, getting access to blogs, case studies and similar external learning resources from the very beginning is important to avoid any issues in future. Social Learning is a self-propagating concept, that is- once a social learning culture is achieved in an organization. Here we try to enlist the top challenges which hinder social learning from becoming a reality in organizations: 1.
How to create a microlecture?
MARCH 26, 2014
According to Richard Mayer and Ruth Clarck – 10 brilliant design rules for e-learning , media mix (text, graphics, audio, animation, video) in online learning is often wrong, resulting in cognitive overload and dissonance. Combining text and animation cause cognitive dissonance. Combining audio, image/graphic and text may cause cognitive overload. Preparing slides.
The shape of minds to come
Learning with e's
JUNE 18, 2014
She made some important contributions to his stages of cognitive development theory (which will be featured in greater depth in some upcoming articles on this blog). It could be argued that these decisions were made because of Inhelder and Piaget''s cognitive stages theory. Are there actually stages of cognitive development, and are they as Inhelder and Piaget claimed?
In two minds
Learning with e's
SEPTEMBER 26, 2014
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have offered a number of useful theories that aid our understanding of learning. In this post we return to the cognitive domain, with an examination of Allan Paivio''s theory of dual coding. Paivio''s model of cognition featured two modes of processing, known as imagens (images) and logogens (words), which are illustrated below.
Learning with e's
JUNE 23, 2012
In an age of digital media, where learners create, remix and share their own content, an overhaul of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy was long overdue. Yesterday I posted a critique of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy and argued that it is outmoded in the digital age. We might acquire better knowledge while we are in the process of applying and evaluating, for example. So why the swap?
Get it together
Learning with e's
OCTOBER 26, 2013
Let''s start with some theory: According to the revised Bloom''s cognitive taxonomy by Anderson and Krathwohl, ''creating'' is suggested as the peak of achievement. This is a fairly low level cognitive process, but it does require some discernment and decision making ability. You could add notes (annotations) or highlight sections with colour for example. Others such as Scoop.it
Why are people so dumb? (Cognitive Biases)
NOVEMBER 1, 2009
Bob Sutton (author of the excellent Hard Facts on evidence-based management, and other books) has had a few great posts recently on intuition, self-knowledge and cognitive bias (among other things): In Flawed Self-Evaluations he talks about people’s tendencies to overestimate their own knowledge or skill, and that the less they know about an area, the more they overestimate their abilities.
Your Ticket to Great Instructional Design
DECEMBER 23, 2014
quick reference to what I said earlier: Expectations must be set in the beginning, but breaking expectations once in a while in the middle of the course, for example asking participants to perform an (achievable) task impromptu is a great technique to stimulate interest and activate participation. T alk to T hem. Instructional design is certainly not an easy business. Now how do you do that?
Leadership by Example
Learning and Working on the Web
SEPTEMBER 5, 2013
Here are two examples. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. As can be seen by Dr. Brant’s second example, with modelling, the learner is progressively supported. Leadership by example becomes the key. Leadership training usually does not work. Leadership
Cognitive Load vs. Load Time
OCTOBER 9, 2009
Designers love a little cognitive load theory. Cognitive psychology certainly aims to give trainers such a look inside the brain. Cognitive load theory inspires designers to influence various neural systems so attention is focused and retention is optimal. Recently, wired with cognitive load theory, I made the perfect elearning course in Captivate. Cognitive psychology ran smack into the hard wall of file size. In this post, I list the three and explain the first with examples. Thanks, Eric!! It was beautiful. Colors were lovely. Fonts were harmonious.
#mLearn12 Lauri Jarvilehto on #games the learning playing brain
OCTOBER 17, 2012
Example: tiger mom approach (VERY strict raising, ex. Example dragonbox : algebra application with really complex algebra, and based on dragons and boxes. mobile games creativity mLearning mLearn mobile learning cognitive brainLearning as Fun: introducing gaming pedagogy by Lauri Jarvilehto. www.filosofianakatemia.fi As teachers, you can redirect children into the flow.
Memorable Ways to End an eLearning Course
JULY 27, 2011
Cognitive theorists believe that as new information enters the working memory, earlier information is pushed out. Elaboration of an earlier scenario or example. Instructional Design Engagement Recency eLearning Learning Theory Cognitive TheoryBy Shelley A. Gable. The recency effect tells us that people are more likely to remember information from the end of a sequence. In other words, when taking an eLearning course, learners are most likely to remember how the course ended, although the stuff in the middle might blur together. Visual representation. Illustrative story.
Top 5 Performance Support Apps for Learning Designers
MARCH 29, 2014
That’s why Instructional Design Guru defines terms from Instructional Design, Cognitive Psychology, Social Media, Multimedia, Technology and Law. As it claims, this app, with its numerous examples and powerful search features, truly helps put the information instructional designers need for their day-to-day jobs at their fingertips. DesignJot’ App. Kineo E-Learning Top Tips’ App.
Just an illusion?
Learning with e's
NOVEMBER 16, 2013
How do we know for example, that we all represent reality in the same way? took them on a brief tour of cognitive processes, including the human senses, memory and recall, and the representation of reality through perception. showed how these processes connect up into cognitive architectures, through an analysis of the biological, psychological and physiological.
3 Reasons Why You Should Be Using Multisensory Teaching Techniques
Your Training Edge
OCTOBER 13, 2015
Most students have a learning type- a way of receiving information that is optimal to their given personality and cognition. Speaking to students and going through examples with them as they follow along may be effective for some, but others may find themselves lost. Faster Cognitive Development. Auditory (hearing). Gustatory (taste). Olfaction (smell). For all ages.
Transfer of Learning - Theories and Implications
Designed for Learning
OCTOBER 31, 2009
An example would be procedural training, perhaps using a software application to perform routine tasks – creating documents in MS Word. An example of this will be perhaps understanding the economic concepts associated with how the stock market functions and then analysing trends and utilizing information to build a strong portfolio. Interesting.
An Exuberant discovery for Lonely and Stressed-out eLearners
SEPTEMBER 11, 2012
When students are engaged and motivated and feel minimal stress, information flows freely through the affective filter in the amygdala and they achieve higher levels of cognition, make connections, and experience "aha" moments. These examples brought me back to the core ideas I proposed in making technical learning more relevant. We’re lonely but we’re afraid of intimacy.” 1999).
Let Learners Sleep on It
APRIL 25, 2012
For example, researchers from the University of Haifa published a study in Nature Neuroscience in 2007 in which study participants who took a 90-minute nap after learning a task improved their ability to perform the task again later that day. Another example, published in Nature in 2004, suggests that sleep can enhance performance in creative problem solving. Instructional Design eLearning Blog Neuroscience Workplace Learning eLearning Cognitive TheoryBy Shelley A. Gable. As kids, many of us resisted bedtime. As adults, many of us wish we could get more sleep.
AUGUST 6, 2013
Cognitive theorists believe that as new information enters the working memory, earlier information is pushed out. If so, please share examples in the comments! Instructional Design Recall Recency eLearning Blog Best Practices Workplace Learning eLearning Learning Theory Cognitive Theory Cognitive Load Attention By Shelley A. Gable. If you haven’t encountered it lately, it’s possible you’ve forgotten about the recency theory of learning. Recency is the tendency to be more likely to remember information from the end of a sequence. fill-in-the-blank slide.
iPad Applications In Bloom’s Taxonomy
AUGUST 24, 2011
It’s an interesting graphic that actually places example iPad applications into Bloom’s levels of performance in the cognitive domain. This has bubbled up in my feeds not once, but several times now. Focussed around students, and not really workplace learning, but interesting nonetheless. Check it out.
A New Year’s Resolution: Remove the Fluff from eLearning
JANUARY 12, 2011
While some may use them to review terminology, I can’t think of an example of when these activities would be the best way to reinforce that knowledge. Instructional Design Discovery Learning Scenario-Based Learning eLearning Learning Theory Cognitive TheoryBy Shelley A. Gable. Think about the elements you included in your last eLearning project. The content you included. The types of activities you designed. If you had to offer business justification for each slide and activity in your eLearning lesson to your client, could you consistently make a compelling case? What are they?
Aging. Can We Enhance People's Cognitive Outcomes?
Will at Work Learning
JUNE 4, 2009
If you work in the workplace learning-and-performance field, one of your jobs is to ensure that employees are maximizing their cognitive performance, their decision making, and their overall work output. If people's cognitive abilities decreased with age, that would be a problem. Test your Knowledge of Aging's Effect on Cognitive Ability. Can Cognitive Ability be Improved?
Conveying Tacit Knowledge in eLearning
MAY 4, 2011
In a May-June 2009 article printed in Organization Science, Nonaka suggests knowledge of wine tasting or crafting a violin as other examples of tacit knowledge. What examples can you think of? What are other examples of tacit knowledge that come to mind? Instructional Design Social Media Social Learning Scenario-Based Learning Storytelling Evaluation Tacit Knowledge eLearning Learning Theory Cognitive TheoryBy Shelley A. Gable. Tacit knowledge can be challenging to teach in formal training, but it's not impossible. So how can we convey tacit knowledge in eLearning?