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Weighing the Options: Different Schools of Thought

CLO Magazine

The longtime University of Wisconsin at Madison professor wrote a series of articles in 1959 for the American Society for Training and Development that outlined what became known as the four levels of evaluation — reaction, learning, behavior and results. Jack Phillips, chairman of ROI Institute Inc., Phillips, who started the ROI Institute in 1993 and has written a number of books on the subject, adds a fifth level, return on investment, to the taxonomy.