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From novice to expert

Learning with 'e's

a student cohort) can be extended by encouraging them to scaffold weaker, or less expert learners, to encourage and lead, in a kind of cognitive apprenticeship. Subsequent work on the theory has revealed that cognitive tools (learning with, rather than through technology) can be applied to amplify the ''situatedness'' of learning, by providing active, engaging contexts. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Unported License.

Memory full

Learning with 'e's

The work of John Sweller and Nillie Lavie on Cognitive Load Theory and Capacity Theory (based on studies by Shalom Fisch ) is useful to help us understand how to optimise digital design environments such as the layout of virtual learning environments or online discussion groups. What exactly can Cognitive Load Theory do to help us to optimise students'' memories? To understand Cognitive Load Theory, we first need to revisit Working Memory (WM). Unported License.

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Deeper learning

Learning with 'e's

Craik and Lockhart claimed that the deeper the processing, the stronger will be the trace of that memory, and thus recall will take less cognitive effort. This framework for human memory research is considered by many cognitive psychologists to be a stronger explanation than those of the multi-store memory models. It has also influenced other recently proposed cognitive processing theories including spreading activation theory and neural network theory. Unported License.

Learning, making and powerful ideas

Learning with 'e's

The Theory Not to be confused with constructivism, constructionism is a cognitive theory that relates to learning by making things. They represent the essence of rational thinking, developing cognitive skills that will prepare the child to deal with a multitude of challenges and problems they may encounter later in life. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Unported License.

Ideas 56

Stage by stage

Learning with 'e's

Psychologists and cognitive scientists have offered a number of useful theories that aid our understanding of learning. In this post we examine one of the most influential theories of the 20th Century - the stages of cognitive development model proposed by Jean Piaget. He proposed several influential ideas about how as they grow, children pass through several stages of cognitive growth. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12.

Conflict resolution

Learning with 'e's

In this post, we continue to explore Festinger''s work, this time focusing on his theory of cognitive dissonance. Festinger called this phenomenon cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is essentially a theory of motivation through conflict resolution. As Kendra Cherry argues: "Cognitive dissonance plays a role in many value judgements, decisions and evaluations. This results in disappointment, which can be described as a form of cognitive dissonance.

Mind technology

Learning with 'e's

The tools I use are a kind of mind technology, a means of extending my cognitive capabilities, enhancing my thinking, memory and recall. It would take me a lot longer though, and I would have to divert more cognitive energy away from the core stuff. These tools are indeed cognitive technologies - mind tools that help us to learn new things, to seek out new ideas and new concepts, to boldly take us - who knows where? Unported License.

The shape of minds to come

Learning with 'e's

She made some important contributions to his stages of cognitive development theory (which will be featured in greater depth in some upcoming articles on this blog). It could be argued that these decisions were made because of Inhelder and Piaget''s cognitive stages theory. Are there actually stages of cognitive development, and are they as Inhelder and Piaget claimed? Unported License. This is number 17 in my series on learning theories.

Thinking, language and memory

Learning with 'e's

Blogging and other creative forms of writing have a rich language capability that can support better memory and recall, particularly if the technology is used as a mind tool to extend language. Photo by Anders Sandberg on Flickr Thinking, language and memory by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Get it together

Learning with 'e's

Let''s start with some theory: According to the revised Bloom''s cognitive taxonomy by Anderson and Krathwohl, ''creating'' is suggested as the peak of achievement. This is a fairly low level cognitive process, but it does require some discernment and decision making ability. Photo by Julia Frost Get it together by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Words in mind

Learning with 'e's

Psychologists and cognitive scientists have offered a number of useful theories that aid our understanding of learning. The last post in this series featured the stages of cognitive development model proposed by Jean Piaget. In this post I examine a cognitive theory - spreading activation theory - adapted from a hierarchical model of memory proposed by Ross Quillian and Allan Collins. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12.

A steep learning curve

Learning with 'e's

Previous posts in this series: Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture Argyris Double Loop Learning Bandura Social Learning Theory Bruner Scaffolding Theory Craik and Lockhart Levels of Processing Csíkszentmihályi Flow Theory Dewey Experiential Learning Engeström Activity Theory Photo by ericd on Wikimedia Commons A steep learning curve Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Just an illusion?

Learning with 'e's

I took them on a brief tour of cognitive processes, including the human senses, memory and recall, and the representation of reality through perception. I showed how these processes connect up into cognitive architectures, through an analysis of the biological, psychological and physiological. Photo by Ian Stannard Just an illusion? by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Smart learning

Learning with 'e's

Photo by Joaquim F. Silva Smart learning by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. distributed cognition learning future 3D visualisationI spend most of my time in the future, but I do go home at weekends. At least, that is my explanation about why I am so fascinated with the future. I always have been, ever since I was a little boy and started reading science fiction novels.

The shape of minds to come

Learning with 'e's

She made some important contributions to his stages of cognitive development theory (which will be featured in greater depth in some upcoming articles on this blog). It could be argued that these decisions were made because of Inhelder and Piaget's cognitive stages theory. Are there actually stages of cognitive development, and are they as Inhelder and Piaget claimed? Unported License. Image by Steve Wheeler This is number 17 in my series on learning theories.

Any computer that can be replaced by a teacher, should be

Learning with 'e's

Photo by Steve Wheeler Here's my opinion, for what it's worth. Even cognitive computing has been developed to mimic human decision making and other natural characteristics of being human. Any computer that can be replaced by a teacher, should be by Steve Wheeler was written in Auckland, New Zealand and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Constructing learning in the digital age

Learning with 'e's

From a cognitive constructivist perspective, learning is achieved through the twin processes of assimilation and accommodation. The latter implies that new learning is 'bolted onto', or constructed within, existing cognitive structures known as schemas. In a sense, an algorithm has much in common with a schema, particularly because both have rules and sequences of instruction that can be followed to achieve a specific goal. Unported License.

#BrainTime 1: Well I never

Learning with 'e's

Photo from Needpix This is the first in the #BrainTime series on the effects of time on the human mind. Cognitive scientists now believe that déjà vu may be caused by our processes of perception, cognition and memory. Unported License.

Passing of the year

Learning with 'e's

Salomon, an educational psychologist from Israel, was interested in studying the effects of technology on cognition and learning. Perhaps his greatest contribution to our knowledge about educational technology came in the form of his theory of transfer of learning (a theory that can be applied to learning through problem solving), but he also did extensive work into the optimal design of cognitive tools and learning environments. Unported License.

Many pathways

Learning with 'e's

In my most recent post I examined Leon Festinger''s cognitive dissonance theory and its applications to education. Unported License. This is number 12 in my series of short posts on learning theories. I''m working through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of each theory, and how it can be applied in education. In this post, we explore the work of Howard Gardner, known universally as Multiple Intelligences Theory.

The height of SAMR

Learning with 'e's

A key stage in any successful technology integration is to ensure that the affordances of new technologies are exploited by students for authentic learning outcomes and leveraged to be extensions of their natural cognitive and physical capabilities. Photo by Jim Cianca on Wikimedia Commons The height of SAMR by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Who's in charge?

Learning with 'e's

Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Piaget Cognitive Stages of Development 34. Quillian and Collins Spreading Activation Theory Photo by NEC Corporation on Flickr Who's in charge? by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is number 35 in my ongoing series on learning theories.

6. Frankenstein's well-meaning monster

Learning with 'e's

Photo from Wikimedia Commons What's that coming over the hill? Granted, in 'Frankenstein', Hollywood created a ripping gothic yarn that capitalised on the horror factor, and yes, the photo from the film is iconic (probably Karloff's greatest moment), but it's hardly faithful to the original texts. In school, the attitude of teachers can influence a child's cognitive and social development. Unported License.

Movie 29

Self fulfilling prophecies

Learning with 'e's

This effect is commonly known in education as the ' Pygmalion effect ' but is more accurately referred to as the 'observer-expectancy effect'. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Piaget Cognitive Stages of Development 34. Unported License. This is number 36 in my continuing series of blog posts about learning theories.

Learning as dialogue

Learning with 'e's

Later, Piaget, Inhelder and others were responsible for introducing a cognitive version of learning theory which held that children were ''solo scientists'' who constructed their own meaning through exploration of their environment. This prompted new approaches in schools that included discovery learning and progressive curricula that neatly reflected Piaget''s stages of cognitive development model. Unported License.

Our digital future 9: Omni-choice learning

Learning with 'e's

Photo by Loewe Technologies on unsplash There's plenty of hype about artificial intelligence (AI) and its potential, future impact on society. Next time on Our Digital Future - 10: Cognitive courseware. 6: Home learning 7: Work 8: Artificial Intelligence Our digital future: Omni-choice learning by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Activity learning

Learning with 'e's

plans, cognitive maps) to achieve their goals. Photo by Artaxerxes on Wikimedia Commons Graphic by Steve Wheeler Previous posts in this series: Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture Argyris Double Loop Learning Bandura Social Learning Theory Bruner Scaffolding Theory Craik and Lockhart Levels of Processing Csíkszentmihályi Flow Theory Dewey Experiential Learning Activity learning Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0

The AfL truth about assessment

Learning with 'e's

Shouldn''t curricula and assessment (especially the high stakes kind) now focus more on the kinds of knowledge and cognitive skills students need to survive and thrive in an information rich world? Photo from Wikimedia Commons by Hariadhi Who put the ass in assessment? by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Lightbulb moments

Learning with 'e's

British psychologist Graham Wallas called this thinking time an incubation period - time needed before arrival at a creative solution - the illumination phase of thinking. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Koffka Gestalt theory Photo by Alan Cleaver Lightbulb moments by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Better together

Learning with 'e's

Photo by US Dept of Agriculture on Flickr Social learning is one of the vital components of contemporary learning and development. Image from Wikimedia Commons This has been the principle of apprenticeships since ancient times. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Better together by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0

Joining the dots

Learning with 'e's

Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Jahoda Ideal Mental Health Photo by Clemens Koppensteiner Joining the dots by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is number 20 in my series on learning theories.

Through a child's eyes

Learning with 'e's

Research from the behavioural and cognitive sciences, neurosciences and pedagogical research fields is regularly yielding new findings. In an article entitled 'Learning from Learners', Rachel Wu (Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the University of Rochester, New York) discusses some recent findings on how infants learn. She advocates doing and making, rather than receiving instruction as the best way for students to excel, especially in creative areas of learning.

#3quotes from Bruner

Learning with 'e's

Photo by Crabchick on Flickr In my #3quotes series I have been citing directly from the texts of education thinkers, because it is important to apply ideas and theories in context. Bruner placed great emphasis on prior learning, cognitive mapping and the formation of schemas in learning. 3quotes from Bruner by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Behave yourself

Learning with 'e's

Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Jung Archetypes and Synchronicity Photo from Wikimedia Commons Behave yourself by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is number 19 in my series on learning theories.

Vygotsky, Piaget and YouTube

Learning with 'e's

They would need to progress through a strictly defined set of cognitive stages before they were ready to learn at the next level. Photo by Anne Roberts Vygotsky, Piaget and YouTube by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The world is changing, and it''s largely due to the proliferation of technology. Learning in particular is being democratised.

Watch and learn

Learning with 'e's

Social learning theory incorporates the idea of behaviour reinforcement from the former, and cognitive processes such as attention, motivation and memory from the latter. Photo by MikePD Watch and learn by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is the third in my blog series on major learning theories.

Digital reflections

Learning with 'e's

This can be hosted photo and video sharing sites such as Flickr and YouTube, or social networking sites such as Facebook, but are equally likely to be curation and aggregation tools such as Scoop.it In a cognitive sense, this is ''making sense of learning'', affording students with deeper insight or explanation of what they have already learnt. 2013) Digital reflection: Using digital technologies to enhance and embed creative processes. Unported License.

Drive through learning

Learning with 'e's

There is no room in Hull''s theory for example, to explain how humans can continue to explore their environment, solve problems and generate creative work even though they may be cold, hungry or thirsty. Unported License. This is number 16 in my series on learning theories. I''m working through the alphabet of psychologists and theorists, providing a brief overview of each theory, and how it can be applied in education.

The point of no return

Learning with 'e's

Transformative learning is found in the struggle to make sense of chaos, in the churn of the unfamiliar, and in the cognitive dissonance of doubt. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Maslow Hierarchy of Human Needs Photo by Sid Mosdell on Flickr The point of no return by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Opening up #learning: Forms and formats

Learning with 'e's

This brought together two of the most potent human senses of sight and sound, and later, as programmed texts became available to accompany television, we exploited what psychologist Allan Paivio described as the dual cognitive facilities of imagen (visual) and logogen (speech and writing) processing. Unported License. Following on from my previous post , I was asked what was the difference between new forms of learning and new formats of learning.