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From novice to expert

Learning with 'e's

a student cohort) can be extended by encouraging them to scaffold weaker, or less expert learners, to encourage and lead, in a kind of cognitive apprenticeship. Subsequent work on the theory has revealed that cognitive tools (learning with, rather than through technology) can be applied to amplify the ''situatedness'' of learning, by providing active, engaging contexts. Reference Lave, J. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Unported License.

Memory full

Learning with 'e's

The work of John Sweller and Nillie Lavie on Cognitive Load Theory and Capacity Theory (based on studies by Shalom Fisch ) is useful to help us understand how to optimise digital design environments such as the layout of virtual learning environments or online discussion groups. What exactly can Cognitive Load Theory do to help us to optimise students'' memories? To understand Cognitive Load Theory, we first need to revisit Working Memory (WM). Unported License.

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Deeper learning

Learning with 'e's

Other explanations of memory have focused on the functions of various types of memory, and such approaches are often referred to as multi-store theories. Instead of referring to different stores of memory, Craik and Lockhart proposed that there are different levels of information processing. Craik and Lockhart claimed that the deeper the processing, the stronger will be the trace of that memory, and thus recall will take less cognitive effort. Reference Craik, F.

Learning, making and powerful ideas

Learning with 'e's

The Theory Not to be confused with constructivism, constructionism is a cognitive theory that relates to learning by making things. They represent the essence of rational thinking, developing cognitive skills that will prepare the child to deal with a multitude of challenges and problems they may encounter later in life. Reference Papert, S. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Unported License.

Ideas 56

Conflict resolution

Learning with 'e's

In this post, we continue to explore Festinger''s work, this time focusing on his theory of cognitive dissonance. Festinger called this phenomenon cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is essentially a theory of motivation through conflict resolution. As Kendra Cherry argues: "Cognitive dissonance plays a role in many value judgements, decisions and evaluations. This results in disappointment, which can be described as a form of cognitive dissonance.

Stage by stage

Learning with 'e's

Psychologists and cognitive scientists have offered a number of useful theories that aid our understanding of learning. In this post we examine one of the most influential theories of the 20th Century - the stages of cognitive development model proposed by Jean Piaget. He proposed several influential ideas about how as they grow, children pass through several stages of cognitive growth. Reference Donaldson, M. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2.

The shape of minds to come

Learning with 'e's

She made some important contributions to his stages of cognitive development theory (which will be featured in greater depth in some upcoming articles on this blog). It could be argued that these decisions were made because of Inhelder and Piaget''s cognitive stages theory. Are there actually stages of cognitive development, and are they as Inhelder and Piaget claimed? References Donaldson, M. Unported License.

Thinking, language and memory

Learning with 'e's

Reference Vygotsky, L. Photo by Anders Sandberg on Flickr Thinking, language and memory by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. constructivism Culture early childhood education higher order cognitive skills language learning memory Technology tool use Vygotsky ZPD

Get it together

Learning with 'e's

Let''s start with some theory: According to the revised Bloom''s cognitive taxonomy by Anderson and Krathwohl, ''creating'' is suggested as the peak of achievement. But all discussions need a reference point, a starting place from where the arguments can proceed. This is a fairly low level cognitive process, but it does require some discernment and decision making ability. Unported License. What can we learn from digital curation of content?

A steep learning curve

Learning with 'e's

He referred to this as the forgetting curve and mapped it using graphs. Reference Cherry, K. Unported License. cognitive processes education Hermann Ebbinghaus learning learning curve memory This is number 9 in my series on learning theories. My intention is to work through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of each theory, and how it can be applied in education.

Cammy Beans Learning Visions: Essential Reading for Instructional Design?

Learning Visions

As an instructional designer/eLearning professional, what books are the essential tools in your reference library ? They might refer to theory, but they dont get bogged down in it: e-Learning and the Science of Instruction by Ruth Clark and Richard Mayer Michael Allens Guide to E-Learning by Michael Allen Gadgets, Games & Gizmos for Learning by Karl Kapp Last May, I started a bit of a list in this post: Beginning Instructional Designers Toolkit. United States License.

The shape of minds to come

Learning with 'e's

She made some important contributions to his stages of cognitive development theory (which will be featured in greater depth in some upcoming articles on this blog). It could be argued that these decisions were made because of Inhelder and Piaget's cognitive stages theory. Are there actually stages of cognitive development, and are they as Inhelder and Piaget claimed? References Donaldson, M. Unported License.

DR. STELLA LEE – CRYSTAL BALLING WITH LEARNNOVATORS

Learnnovators

These chatbots can be integrated into a company’s intranet, Learning Management Systems (LMS), smart phones, stand-alone devices, and even everyday appliances (it could even be the photo copiers in your office!). STELLA LEE - CRYSTAL BALLING WITH LEARNNOVATORS.

#BrainTime 1: Well I never

Learning with 'e's

Photo from Needpix This is the first in the #BrainTime series on the effects of time on the human mind. I'm not referring just to the visual perception issues, you know - the optical illusions where we see one thing but it's another. Unported License.

Spaced Repetition Apps Are the New 3×5: Futuristic Flashcards and Microlearning

Grovo

One Anki user studies “photos of important business contacts, with prompts to recall the person’s name and some personal information,” Shellenbarger wrote. Many benefits of microlearning exist in flashcards: the light cognitive load, the greater retention of visual material than auditory material, the custom training content. The term refers to the practice of frequently reviewing information you don’t grasp well and infrequently reviewing what you already do.

Grovo 100

Many pathways

Learning with 'e's

In my most recent post I examined Leon Festinger''s cognitive dissonance theory and its applications to education. Reference Gardner, H. Unported License. This is number 12 in my series of short posts on learning theories. I''m working through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of each theory, and how it can be applied in education. In this post, we explore the work of Howard Gardner, known universally as Multiple Intelligences Theory.

Activity learning

Learning with 'e's

This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please refer to the original work of the theorist. The Scandinavian school of thought that has developed around AT is arguably the most referred to in the literature and is largely based on the work of Yrjö Engeström. plans, cognitive maps) to achieve their goals. Reference Engeström, Y., Unported License. This is number 8 in my series on learning theories.

Self fulfilling prophecies

Learning with 'e's

This effect is commonly known in education as the ' Pygmalion effect ' but is more accurately referred to as the 'observer-expectancy effect'. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Piaget Cognitive Stages of Development 34. Unported License. This is number 36 in my continuing series of blog posts about learning theories.

The height of SAMR

Learning with 'e's

The first two levels, substitution and augmentation are often referred to as low levels of technology integration, in as much as they do not substantially impact upon or transform pedagogy. A key stage in any successful technology integration is to ensure that the affordances of new technologies are exploited by students for authentic learning outcomes and leveraged to be extensions of their natural cognitive and physical capabilities. Unported License.

Through a child's eyes

Learning with 'e's

Research from the behavioural and cognitive sciences, neurosciences and pedagogical research fields is regularly yielding new findings. In an article entitled 'Learning from Learners', Rachel Wu (Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the University of Rochester, New York) discusses some recent findings on how infants learn. References Schwartz, M. Unported License. We are constantly developing our understanding about how children learn.

Lightbulb moments

Learning with 'e's

Reference Previous posts in this series: 1. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Koffka Gestalt theory Photo by Alan Cleaver Lightbulb moments by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. We reach number 21 in this series on learning theories.

Better together

Learning with 'e's

Photo by US Dept of Agriculture on Flickr Social learning is one of the vital components of contemporary learning and development. References Bandura, A. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Better together by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Authentic learning

Learning with 'e's

Most people learn best by being "with it," yet school makes them identify their personal, cognitive growth with elaborate planning and manipulation.' Brown, Collins and Duguid (1989) agree, believing that authentic learning contexts are vitally important if students are to acquire and develop cognitive skills that are transferable to real world living. References Brown, J.S., 1989) Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Unported License.

The point of no return

Learning with 'e's

Transformative learning is found in the struggle to make sense of chaos, in the churn of the unfamiliar, and in the cognitive dissonance of doubt. Reference Mezirow, J. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Maslow Hierarchy of Human Needs Photo by Sid Mosdell on Flickr The point of no return by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

#3quotes from Bruner

Learning with 'e's

Photo by Crabchick on Flickr In my #3quotes series I have been citing directly from the texts of education thinkers, because it is important to apply ideas and theories in context. Bruner placed great emphasis on prior learning, cognitive mapping and the formation of schemas in learning. 1990, p 34) References Bruner, J. 3quotes from Bruner by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0

The future of intelligence

Learning with 'e's

Futurologist Ray Kurzweil's argument looks beyond these issues, holding that the tools we have available to us as a result of networked social media and personal devices, actually enable us to increase our cognitive abilities. He argues that we are becoming more creative and have the potential for endless cognitive gain as a result of increased access to these technologies. References Clark, A. Unported License.

Experiential learning

Learning with 'e's

This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please refer to the original work of the theorist. Reference Dewey, J. Unported License. This is number 7 in my blog series on major learning theories. My plan is to work through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of their theories, and how each can be applied in education. In the last post we examined the work of Mihály Csíkszentmihályi on Flow Theory.

Drive through learning

Learning with 'e's

Reference Hull, C. Unported License. This is number 16 in my series on learning theories. I''m working through the alphabet of psychologists and theorists, providing a brief overview of each theory, and how it can be applied in education. In my most recent post I featured the theory of Heutagogy by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon and its applications to education. In this post, we will explore Clark Hull''s drive reduction theory of motivation.

Digital reflections

Learning with 'e's

This can be hosted photo and video sharing sites such as Flickr and YouTube, or social networking sites such as Facebook, but are equally likely to be curation and aggregation tools such as Scoop.it In a cognitive sense, this is ''making sense of learning'', affording students with deeper insight or explanation of what they have already learnt. Reference Kirk, C. Unported License. My last post was about integrating technologies into education.

Watch and learn

Learning with 'e's

Social learning theory incorporates the idea of behaviour reinforcement from the former, and cognitive processes such as attention, motivation and memory from the latter. Reference Bandura, A. Photo by MikePD Watch and learn by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is the third in my blog series on major learning theories.

In the loop (twice)

Learning with 'e's

This is a simplified explanation of the theory, so those who wish to read more deeply should read to the volume in the reference section. The theory Argyris bases his theory on the premise that each of us has a cognitive map inside our heads - in other words, a script to deal with problems and challenges based on previous experience. Reference Argyris, C. Unported License. This is the second in my series of short blog posts on important theories of learning.

Designing An iPhone App: Instructional Design Guru

The eLearning Coach

I’m happy to announce that Instructional Design Guru , my new reference and performance support app for instructional designers, is now available for the iPhone. It defines over 450 terms associated with learning experience design, drawn from the fields of instructional design, cognitive psychology, social media, multimedia, technology and law. “ What if someone is looking for photos and doesn’t know what a Creative Commons License is?

The survival of Higher Education (4): 5 key objectives

Learning with 'e's

This relates back to training, which brings familiarity, but teachers also need to see beyond the technology, using it as an extension and enhancement of their own cognitive capabilities, or ‘ mind technology ’. Continues tomorrow References John, P. Photo by Felix Burton on Wikimedia Commons The survival of Higher Education (4): 5 key objectives by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Toys 48

Our mutual friends

Learning with 'e's

References Jenkins, H. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Merizow Transformative Learning Photo by Stefano Bertolo on Flickr Our mutual friends by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is number 28 in my series on learning theories.

Strictly for adults?

Learning with 'e's

Reference Knowles, M. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Kolb Experiential Learning Cycle Photo by Norwood Adult Services on Wikimedia Commons Strictly for adults? by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is number 23 in my series on learning theories.

Help yourself

Learning with 'e's

Reference Hase, S. Unported License. This is number 15 in my series on learning theories. I''m working through the alphabet of psychologists and theorists, providing a brief overview of each theory, and how it can be applied in education. In my most recent post I featured Richard Gregory''s perceptual hypothesis and its applications to education. In this post, we take a look at an emerging theory of learning proposed by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, known as Heutagogy.

Help 49

Going the extra mile

Learning with 'e's

Reference Maslow, A. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Lave and Wenger Communities of Practice Photo by Steve Wheeler Going the extra mile by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is number 26 in my series on learning theories.

What you see is what you get

Learning with 'e's

Correctly referred to as the ecological model of visual perception, we process the world we see bottom up, not top down. Reference Gibson, J.J. Unported License. Here is number 13 in my series of short posts on learning theories. I''m working through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of each theory, and how it can be applied in education.

Shocking behaviour

Learning with 'e's

Another of Milgram''s experiments led to a theory of compliance, more generally referred to as obedience to authority. Anderson ACT-R Cognitive Architecture 2. Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12. Milgram Six Degrees of Separation Photo by Deviant Art Shocking behaviour by Steve Wheeler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is number 29 in my series on learning theories.

In the flow

Learning with 'e's

This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please refer to the original work of the theorist. Reference Csíkszentmihályi, M. Unported License. This is number 6 in my blog series on major learning theories. My plan is to work through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of their theories, and how each can be applied in education.